Re: [xep-support] XEP with Arabic Typesetting font

From: Mete Kural (
Date: Fri Feb 20 2004 - 11:46:41 PST

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    Hello Chris,

    Thanks for the information. I am attaching some
    examples of these complex script renderings from the
    Quran. One of the files that I am attaching is a plain
    Unicode text file and I am also attaching four image
    files scanned from a hardcopy Quran that show the

    1) In verses 2:33 and 2:35, the 2nd word "yaaadamo",
    the Hamza should be coded as "0621" (unlike the 2nd
    word in 2:33 and the 11th word in 2:35, where the
    "0654" above the Yaa is the correct encoding)
    2) In verse 2:39, the 4th word "beaayaatenaa" should
    be coded with "0621"
    3) In verse 2:48, the 7th word "shayaan" should be
    coded with "0621"

    For a rendering engine to accomplish this sort of
    complex script rendering is a high specialty task. I
    would recommend that if XEP wishes to support complex
    Arabic script rendering, they integrate with a
    sophisticated rendering engine instead of developing
    one from scratch.

    Kind Regards,

    --- Chris Lilley <> wrote:
    > On Friday, February 20, 2004, 3:03:40 PM, Nikolai
    > wrote:
    > NG> Mete,
    > >> Is XEP capable of rendering a Lam-Alef ligature
    > >> with a hamza and possibly also a fatha on top of
    > it?
    > NG> Treatment of hamza, fatha and similar
    > diacritical
    > NG> signs is indeed a hard issue for XEP in its
    > current shape.
    > NG> XEP process combining diacritics as if the were
    > NG> ordinary symbols. Therefore, to get an
    > Alef+hamza,
    > NG> you should use a separate glyph for it
    > ().
    > NG> This glyph will be correctly shaped to
    > isolated/initial
    > NG> or medial/final form, and if there is a Lam
    > preceding
    > NG> it in the text, it will produce a correct
    > Lam+Alef+hamza
    > NG> ligature.
    > Am I correct to infer from this that XEP has support
    > for only
    > precombined characters in general, so that for
    > example a latin letter
    > 'e' followed by a combining acute accent will not
    > render as an
    > 'e-acute'?
    > NG> For fatha, the situation is more difficult:
    > there is no
    > NG> Unicode point to cover its combinations with
    > Alef
    > NG> or Alef+hamza.
    > Since Unicode has a policy of not adding new
    > precomposed characters
    > unless really necessary (because of the
    > multiplicative explosion of
    > code points), there is unlikely to be such a
    > codepoint in the future
    > either. Nor is it needed, there are already Unicode
    > points for fatha,
    > damma, kasra etc and these are, naturally, combining
    > characters.
    > Unlike the acute accent (in French) but like the
    > accents and tone
    > marks in Vietnamese, these characters also need to
    > stack.
    > NG> Rather than adding such an API, we would better
    > prefer to refine
    > NG> our own engine to cover complex cases like these
    > :-).
    > A worthy goal, although coverage of basic newspaper
    > Arabic is
    > probably a better first target before moving on the
    > the complexities
    > of Quranic typesetting.
    > Does anyone have short examples of these sorts of
    > more complex script
    > renderings (plus images of correct renderings),
    > which could be used
    > for test cases? I am thinking of XSL FO test cases
    > of course, though
    > also interested in their use for SVG test cases.
    > --
    > Chris Lilley
    > Chair, W3C SVG Working Group
    > Member, W3C Technical Architecture Group
    > -------------------
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    <verse no="٣٣">قَالَ يَٰٓءَادَمُ أَنۢبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَآںِٕهِمْۖ فَلَمَّآ أَنۢبَٲَهُم بِأَسْمَآںِٕهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّىٓ أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَ ٱلْأَرْضِ وَ أَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ</verse>
    <verse no="٣٥">وَ قُلْنَا یَٰٓءَادَمُ ٱسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَ زَوْجُكَ ٱلْجَنَّةَ وَ كُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَ لَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ ٱلشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ ٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ</verse>
    <verse no="٣٩">وَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ وَ كَذَّبُواْ بِءَايَٰتِنَآ أُوْلَٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصْحَٰبُ ٱلنَّارِۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَٰلِدُونَ</verse>
    <verse no="٤٨">وَٱتَّقُواْ يَوْمًا لَّا تَجْزِى نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْءًا وَ لَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَٰعَةُُ وَ لَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلُُ وَ لَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ</verse>

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